In1833 Lewis Edson Waterman created the first fountain pen using the radius of a wheel. Since then, the fountain pen world has evolved a lot in terms of materials and shapes.However, there are always four main parts in each fountain pen: the barrel, the cap, the charging system and, last but not least, the nib.
Sometimes the material in which the barrel is made becomes a hallmark of the brand. For example, the most exotic woods are a distinctive mark of Graf von Faber-Castellpieces, such as the celluloid known as Auroloid is of Aurora.
The same is true for Japanese writing brands that manufacture traditional and complex pieces in which tradition and craftsmanship play a fundamental role. Thus, Nakaya is well-known for its ebonite pieces covered lacquered with Urushi.
In turn, we can distinguish three parts in the body .
The grip section. This is the closest part to the nib, where it is inserted (or grabbed in the case of inlaidnibs). Generally, it remains covered by the cap when the fountain pen is closed. In some cases, we find that the grip section has been made with a different material than the rest of the body in order to turn this part intoanother ornament of the fountain pen. This is the case of Visconti Van Gogh and Rembrandt.
The central part or barrel. The rear section or culotte, generally is made with the same material as the body. On one hand, we find fountain pens where the rear section is a continuation of the barrel, connected with itt. One the other hand, there are fountain pens with a piston filling system that feature a gyratoryculottethat allows to charge the fountain pen with ink.
2.- The cap
This part not onlyprotects the nib when the fountain pen is not being used, but it alsoprevents the ink from drying.Generally the cap presents ventilation holes to eliminate moisture condensation inside. Normally, it is made of the same material as the body, however some brands such as Graf Von Faber Castell, create caps in a different material given their fountain pens a special aesthetic.
Usually, the cap includes different components that embellish the piece:
Lip: the inner part of the cap that allows close the piece properly.
Finial: close to the top of the cap, where the clip is usually inserted. This part is especially important in the collection “Lord of the Rings Eye of Sauron” by Montegrappa, since these pieces present a gold-plated brass ring which can be unfastened and removed from the cap.
Top: Integrated in the finial, is the top of the cap that we see if we put the fountain pen lengthwise in front of our eyes. This part is generally used by the brands to include some decorative element, such as a detail of the limited edition it belongs to, like the Scribo Letteratura,or the brand's logo, as Twsbidoes.
Clip: Often made with the same material of the rest of trims of the fountain pen. Initially it was designed as a tool to hold your pen, but nowadays it is also a distinctive sign of the brand, as it happens in Pelikan pens.
As a matter of fact, during the Second World War, the American army banned the wearing of any element that could be confused with the insignia of their uniform. Therefore, Sheaffer created smaller clips for their fountain pens so that they are known as Military clips.
Clips are so popular that one distinctive feature of the Cigar collection by the Japanese house Nakaya is the lack of them. Nevertheless, they have designed the rolling stopper for those who want to add a detail to these minimalist pieces.
We can find different cap closing systems, the most common are: pressing, gyratory, magnetic and screw on caps.
Although the cap plays a quintessential role in the design of the great majority of fountain pens, not all of them have one. We refer to retractable fountain pens, functional writing items that offer the convenience of a click pen without renouncing the smooth writing experience of a fountain pen. The brands thatstand outfor having well developed these complex and sophisticated mechanisms are Pilotwith theCapless line,Platinumwith Curidas collection, and finally Lamywith the modelDialog 3.
3.- Charging system
It is the part of the fountain pen inside the barrel, which stores ink. Depending on the size and model, the charging system of the fountain pens vary from ink cartridges to converters or piston fillers.
Finally, the nib. It is the most important part given that it will allow us to write. It can be both made of or plated in different materials such as: stainless steel, gold, palladium or ruthenium.
Slit: the very thin cut running from the breather hole to the tip of the nib that carries the ink from the feed to the tipand absorbs ink from the feeder allowing us to write. It is also known aschannel of ink and air. Sometimes, we can find more than one channel, more than one, as in the case of music nibs.
Feeder: normally is a black part made of plastic or ebonite; whose design is similar to a toothed comb.Its main function is to channel the ink from the reservoir to the nib in a way that it does not drip but flows continuously. It's thanks to thegrooves at the bottom of the feed channel that the ink can descend by capillarity instead of descending by gravity. The principle of capillarity is the key which turned the fountain pen into a revolutionary invention.
Under the nib, we also find the fins, whose main function is to regulate the ink flow which can vary depending on factors beyond the control of the manufacturer such as: temperature, cleaning or the way of writing. Thus, the fins collect the excess of ink and to avoid the dripping, and provide extra ink when it scarces.
Breather hold or vent hold: a hole in the nibdesigned in order to allow air to go inside the nib and prevent it from breaking when we overpressure it while writing. When the ink comes out of the reservoir, a vacuum is created and if it is not regularly filled with air, the ink won’t flow.
Tines: Side parts in which the nib is divided by the channel of air and ink.
Tip,also known as Iridium due to material of which it used to be made. This is the part of the fountain pens that is in direct contact with the paper. You can find different tip shapes that will create a distinctive point to each stroke. Thus, some of the most special ones, and chosen by calligraphy lovers are the nibs stubs and italics that present a straight tip.
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